LCA results & interpretationCommercial Wall-Hung Toilet CT708E(V)(G)

Scope and summary

  • Cradle to gate
  • Cradle to gate with options
  • Cradle to grave

Functional unit

One toilet in an average U.S. commercial environment that functions for 10 years. The period of 10 years is modeled as the period of application based on the average economical lifespan for commercial applications. The technical lifespan is longer. The economical lifespan of commercial applications can be longer or lower due to aesthetic replacements or more intense use. The implication is that the LCA model assumes that the application ends at year 10 and that the materials will be treated in an end-of-life scenario.

Default use phase scenario

10 years of service in an average U.S. commercial environment with 1.28 gallon/use and 133 uses/day resulting in 621,376 gallons of water.

Material composition greater than 1% by weight

Part Material AVG. % WT.
Ceramic Ceramic 82%
Seat Polypropylene 10%
Packaging Corrugated Board 6%
  Other 2%

Total impacts by life cycle stages [mPts/func unit]

  • Production4.74
  • Construction1.07
  • Use163.63
  • End of life0.06
  • Recovery-0.19
  • Total impacts = 169.31 mPts
  • per 10 years of service

What’s causing the greatest impacts

All life cycle stages

The use stage is dominating the results for all impact categories. This is mostly due to the embedded energy arising from acquisition, treatment and distribution of the water used during the operation of the product (91-98%). This is expected as this is a commercial product with a use stage that is very intensive among other sanitary products. The production stage itself and the construction/installation stage are slightly significant but not dominant in any impact category. The recovery stage includes recycling benefits by preventing the need to produce primary materials. Recycling is a relevant factor for all of the impact categories, offsetting a portion of the impacts caused by production. Additionally, the processes for dismantling the product and final waste treatment during the end of life stage do not have a significant impact.

Production stage

The ceramic parts dominate all impact categories except for ozone depletion, non-carcinogenics and eutrophication. The brass parts together with the injection molding process have dominating contributions to the ozone depletion, non-carcinogenics and eutrophication impact categories. The remaining parts and processes contribute between 4% and 23% of the overall impacts in the rest of the categories.

Sensitivity analysis

There are no sensitivity results that lead to variations greater than 10% in the LCA results.

TOTO programs improving environmental performance

  • Dual-Max®, E-Max®, Tornado Flush, 1G®, and EcoPower® reduce water consumption in the use phase
  • Energy efficiency programs optimize the firing process
  • 50% electricity from renewable energy
  • 100% of post-industrial ceramic waste is recycled
See how we make it greener

LCA results

Life cycle Stage Production Construction Use End of Life Recovery

Information modules: Included | Excluded*

*Installation and deconstruction/demolition are mostly manual. The toilets and/or urinals should not need repair, maintenance or replacement during the modeled life time.

Operational energy use is irrelevant to the life cycle of the modeled product.

Reuse and energy recovery are not modeled for toilets and/or urinals.

A1 Raw Materials A4 Transportation/ Delivery B1 Use C1 Deconstruction/ Demolition D1 Recycling
A2 Transportation A5 Construction/ Installation B2 Maintenance C2 Transportation D2 Recovery
A3 Manufacturing   B3 Repair C3 Waste processing D3 Reuse
    B4 Replacement C4 Disposal  
    B5 Refurbishment    
    B6 Operational energy use    
    B7 Operational water use    
Impacts per 10 years of service 4.74 mPts 1.07 mPts 163.63 mPts 0.06 mPts -0.19 mPts
Materials or processes contributing >20% to total impacts in each life cycle stage Ceramic parts production together with brass parts and injection molding process. Transportation of the product to installation site or consumer and disposal of packaging. Volume of water use during the operation of the product and the embedded energy use (such as electricity) in the water used. Transport to waste processing, waste processing and disposal of material flows transported to a landfill. Plastic and metal components' recycling processes.


  • A variation of 10 to 20%
  • |
  • A variation greater than 20%
Life cycle Stage Production Construction Use End of Life Recovery

Ecological damage

Impact Category Unit
Acidification kg SO2 eq Kilograms of Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Acidification processes increase the acidity of water and soil systems and causes damage to lakes, streams, rivers and various plants and animals as well as building materials, paints and other human-built structures.
5.12E-01 1.62E-01 1.42E+01 3.43E-03 -1.20E-02
Ecotoxicity CTUe Comparative Toxic Units of Ecotoxicity
Ecotoxicity causes negative impacts to ecological receptors and, indirectly, to human receptors through the impacts to the ecosystem.
8.02E+01 2.48E+01 1.31E+03 1.13E+00 -2.39E+00
Eutrophication kg N eqKilograms of Nitrogen equivalent
Eutrophication is the enrichment of an aquatic ecosystem with nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) that accelerate biological productivity (growth of algae and weeds) and an undesirable accumulation of algal biomass which impacts industry, agriculture, drinking, fishing and recreation and causes death of fish and shellfish, toxicity to humans, marine mammals and livestock, and reduces biodiversity.
5.07E-02 1.00E-02 1.20E+00 3.29E-04 -3.09E-03
Global warming (Embodied carbon) kg CO2 eqKilograms of Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Global warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to change in global climate patterns and is caused by the increase of the sources of greenhouse gases and decrease of the sinks due to deforestation and land use. GW leads to problems in human health, agriculture, forest, water source and damage to species and biodiversity as well as coastal areas.
5.93E+01 1.08E+01 2.11E+03 1.39E+00 5.94E-01
Ozone depletion kg CFC-11 eq Kilograms of Trichlorofluoromethane equivalent
Ozone depletion is the reduction of ozone in the stratosphere caused by the release of ozone depleting chemicals. Ozone depletion can increases ultraviolet B radiation to the earth which can adversely affect human health (skin cancer and cataracts and immune-system suppression) and other system (marine life, agricultural crops, and other vegetation) and causes damage to human-built materials.
3.34E-06 4.47E-09 8.91E-05 6.54E-08 -9.19E-08


SM Transparency Report Framework

Part A: Part A: LCA Calculation Rules and Background Report Requirements (Draft V2) (based on ISO14040-44, ISO14025 and EN15804)

Part B: Product Group Definition – Commercial Toilet

Transparency Reports™ / environmental product declarations enable purchasers and users to compare the potential environmental performance of products on a life cycle basis. They are designed to present information transparently to make the limitations of comparability more understandable. TRs/EPDs of products that conform to the same PCR and include the same life cycle stages, but are made by different manufacturers, may not sufficiently align to support direct comparisons. They therefore, cannot be used as comparative assertions unless the conditions defined in ISO 14025 Section 6.7.2. ‘Requirements for Comparability’ are satisfied.

Rating systems

The intent is to reward project teams for selecting products from manufacturers who have verified improved life-cycle environmental performance.

LEED BD+C: New Construction | v4 - LEED v4

MR Building product disclosure and optimization
Environmental product declarations

SM Transparency Report product credit values:

  • LCA self-declared, Report self-declared0 product

  • LCA verified, Report self-declared 1/4 product

  • LCA verified, Report certified 1 product

Green Globes for New Construction and Sustainable Interiors

NC Path B: Prescriptive Path from Building Core | NC and SI 4.1.1 Path B: Prescriptive Path for Interior Fit-outs