LCA results & interpretationTET1LN & TET2LN

Scope

  • Cradle to gate
  • Cradle to gate with options
  • Cradle to grave

Functional unit

One average flush valve for toilets in an average U.S. commercial environment for 10 years. One flush valve for toilets in an average U.S. commercial environment. The period of 10 years is modeled as the period of application based on the average technical lifespan for commercial applications. The economical lifespan of commercial applications can be longer or lower due to aesthetic replacements or more intense use. The implication is that the LCA model assumes that the application ends at year 10 and that the materials will be treated in an end-of-life scenario.

Reference service life

The RSL is 10 years.

Default use phase scenario

10 years of service in an average U.S. commercial environment in combination with a toilet with 1.28 gallon/use, 133 uses/day, and 365 days/year resulting in 621,376 gallons of water.

Material composition greater than 1% by weight

Part Material Avg. % WT.
Valve body Bronze (C836000) 25.5%
Packaging Cardboard 15.2%
Bottom cover Zinc die cast 14.9%
Top cover Zinc die cast 13.2%
Valve cap Bronze (C836000) 8.0%
Valve tailpiece Bronze (C836000) 3.5%
Manuals Paper 3.1%
Cover plate Stainless steel 2.0%
Tailpiece nut Brass 1.3%
Solenoid coil Copper 1.1%
  Other 12.2%

Total impacts by life cycle stages [mPts/func unit]

  • LIFE CYCLE STAGEAVG. MPTS/FUNC UNIT
  • Production32.25
  • Construction0.06
  • Use163.93
  • End of life0.06
  • Recovery-2.89
  • Total impacts = 193.40 mPts
  • per 10 years of service

What’s causing the greatest impacts

All life cycle stages

The use and production stages are both important and dominate the results for all impact categories. The impact of the use stage is mostly due to the embedded energy arising from acquisition, treatment and distribution of the water used during the use of the product (i.e. a toilet or a urinal) to which the valves are installed. The production stage itself has a significant contribution to eutrophication (mostly from emissions from copper mining), non-carcinogens (emissions from the production of coal, copper and zinc) and ecotoxicity (mostly from the disposal of steel slags and bottom ashes, as well as from barium emissions to water due to the extraction processes of natural gas).

The recovery stage includes recycling processes and benefits by preventing the need to produce primary materials. Recycling is a relevant factor for some of the impact categories, offsetting a portion of the impacts caused by production. Additionally, the delivery of the product to the construction/installation site, the construction/installation processes, the processes for dismantling the product and final waste treatment during the end of life stage do not have a significant impact.

Production stage

Bronze and zinc parts, together with the printed wiring board, have significant contributions to the impact categories. The stainless steel material is relevant to the carcinogenics category. The electroplating process is a major contributor to the ozone depletion category while the die casting process is relevant to the ecotoxicity and non-carcinogenics categories. Additionally, polishing and potting have somewhat significant processing contribution to the results. Transport via oceanic freighter appears as a relevant contributor to the fossil fuel depletion and smog categories. The remaining parts and processes contribute between 3% and 15% to the overall impacts in the rest of the categories.

Sensitivity analysis

The TET1LN and TET2LN versions are equal in the use phase; therefore, variations in the life cycle are driven by materials and processes that are used in one version of the product but not in the other. Examples are electroplating and zinc die casting, which are only used in the TET1LN version. The TET2LN version does not use zinc, and therefore no zinc die casting and electroplating of the zinc alloy are required.

Multi-product weighted average

Results represent the weighted average using production volumes for the products covered. Variations of specific products for dierences of 10-20% against the average are indicated in purple ; dierences greater than 20% are indicated in red. A dierence greater than 10% is considered significant.

TOTO programs improving environmental performance

  • TOTO’s EcoPower® products are powered by the force of running water.
  • The electronic and mechanical components are programmed and designed to allow water flow and accurate flush volume only when needed.
  • Water consumption is reduced in the use phase due to superior flushing performance.

LCA results

Life cycle Stage Production Construction Use End of Life Recovery

Information modules: Included | Excluded*

*Installation and deconstruction/demolition are mostly manual. The sanitary fittings should not need repair, maintenance or replacement during the modeled life time.

Reuse and energy recovery are not modeled for sanitary fittings.

A1 Raw Materials A4 Transportation/ Delivery B1 Use C1 Deconstruction/ Demolition D1 Recycling
A2 Transportation A5 Construction/ Installation B2 Maintenance C2 Transportation D2 Recovery
A3 Manufacturing   B3 Repair C3 Waste processing D3 Reuse
    B4 Replacement C4 Disposal  
    B5 Refurbishment    
    B6 Operational energy use    
    B7 Operational water use    
Impacts per 10 years of service 32.25 mPts 0.06 mPts 163.93 mPts 0.06 mPts -2.89 mPts
Materials or processes contributing >20% to total impacts in each life cycle stage Brass and zinc parts together to the printed wiring board together with manufacturing processes such as polishing and electroplating. Transportation of the product to installation site or consumer and disposal of packaging. Volume of water use during the operation of the product and the embedded energy use (such as electricity) in the water used. Transport to waste processing, waste processing and disposal of material flows transported to a landfill. Plastic and metal components' recycling processes.

TRACI v2.1

  • A variation of 10 to 20%
  • |
  • A variation greater than 20%
Life cycle Stage Production Construction Use End of Life Recovery

Ecological damage

Impact Category Unit
Acidification SO2eq Kilograms of Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Acidification processes increase the acidity of water and soil systems and causes damage to lakes, streams, rivers and various plants and animals as well as building materials, paints and other human-built structures.
1.59E+00 3.93E-03 1.42E+01 4.07E-03 -9.82E-02
Ecotoxicity CTUe Comparative Toxic Units of Ecotoxicity
Ecotoxicity causes negative impacts to ecological receptors and, indirectly, to human receptors through the impacts to the ecosystem.
4.82E+02 1.59E+00 1.31E+03 6.14E-01 -4.11E+01
Eutrophication N eqKilograms of Nitrogen equivalent
Eutrophication is the enrichment of an aquatic ecosystem with nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) that accelerate biological productivity (growth of algae and weeds) and an undesirable accumulation of algal biomass which impacts industry, agriculture, drinking, fishing and recreation and causes death of fish and shellfish, toxicity to humans, marine mammals and livestock, and reduces biodiversity.
9.47E-01 6.42E-04 1.20E+00 4.88E-04 -3.00E-02
Global warming (Embodied carbon) CO2 eq Kilograms of Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Global warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to change in global climate patterns and is caused by the increase of the sources of greenhouse gases and decrease of the sinks due to deforestation and land use. GW leads to problems in human health, agriculture, forest, water source and damage to species and biodiversity as well as coastal areas.
9.28E+01 9.01E-01 2.13E+03 5.13E-01 -6.54E+00
Ozone depletion CFC-11 eq Kilograms of Trichlorofluoromethane equivalent
Ozone depletion is the reduction of ozone in the stratosphere caused by the release of ozone depleting chemicals. Ozone depletion can increases ultraviolet B radiation to the earth which can adversely affect human health (skin cancer and cataracts and immune-system suppression) and other system (marine life, agricultural crops, and other vegetation) and causes damage to human-built materials.
6.38E-06 1.14E-09 8.91E-05 6.23E-08 -4.13E-07

References

SM Transparency Report Framework

Part A: LCA Calculation Rules and Background Report Requirements | Version 2015 (Based on EN15804+A1; in compliance with ISO 14040-44, 14025)

Part B: Product Group Definition – Commercial Flush Valves

Transparency Reports™ / environmental product declarations enable purchasers and users to compare the potential environmental performance of products on a life cycle basis. They are designed to present information transparently to make the limitations of comparability more understandable. TRs/EPDs of products that conform to the same PCR and include the same life cycle stages, but are made by different manufacturers, may not sufficiently align to support direct comparisons. They therefore, cannot be used as comparative assertions unless the conditions defined in ISO 14025 Section 6.7.2. ‘Requirements for Comparability’ are satisfied.

Rating systems

The intent is to reward project teams for selecting products from manufacturers who have verified improved life cycle environmental performance.

LEED BD+C: New Construction | v4 - LEED v4

MR Building product disclosure and optimization
Environmental product declarations

SM Transparency Report product credit values:

  • LCA self-declared, Report self-declared0 product

  • LCA verified, Report self-declared 1/4 product

  • LCA verified, Report certified 1 product

Green Globes for New Construction and Sustainable Interiors

NC 3.5.1.2 Path B: Prescriptive Path for Building Core and Shell
C 3.5.2.2 and SI 4.1.2 Path B: Prescriptive Path for Interior Fit-outs