LCA & material health results & interpretationUltramax® MS854114E, MS604114CEFG, & MS604114CUFG

Scope and summary

  • Cradle to gate
  • Cradle to gate with options
  • Cradle to grave

Functional unit

One toilet in an average U.S. residential environment that functions for 20 years. The period of 20 years is an industry accepted average lifespan for residential tanks and their associated components; this is more limited due to changes in consumer preferences and innovations in water usage than the technical lifespan of the product. The vessel is assumed to be replaced at the same time as the tank. The implication is that the LCA model assumes that the application ends at year 20 and that the materials will be treated in an end-of-life scenario.

Data reporting period: 2017

Default use phase scenario

Eco Ultramax MS854114E and Ultramax II MS604114CEFG: 20 years of service in a U.S. household with 1.28 gallon/use and 5.05 flushes/day and 2.67 people resulting in 125,990 gallons.

Ultramax II 1G MS604114CUFG: 20 years of service in a U.S. household with an average of 1.0 gallon/use and 5.05 flushes/day and 2.67 people resulting in approximately 98,430 gallons.

The toilet bowl is assumed to be cleaned weekly, 52 weeks per year, with 10mL of a 1% sodium lauryl sulfate solution.

Material composition greater than 1% by weight

Part Material AVG. % WT.
Ceramic Ceramic 83.6%
Packaging Cardboard 10.1%
Seat Polypropylene 4.7%
  Other 1.6%

Total impacts by life cycle stages [mPts/func unit]

  • Production8.15
  • Construction0.65
  • Use30.64
  • End of life1.44
  • Recovery-0.49
  • Total impacts = 40.39 mPts
  • per 20 years of service
  • A variation of 10 to 20%
  • |
  • A variation greater than 20%

What’s causing the greatest impacts

All life cycle stages

The use stage and the production stage are equally important and dominate the results for all impact categories. The impact of the use stage is mostly due to the embedded energy arising from acquisition, treatment and distribution of the water used during the operation of the product. The production stage has the most significant contributions to fossil fuel depletion (mostly defined by crude oil, hard coal and natural gas extraction activities as well as polypropylene manufacturing), non-carcinogenics (mostly defined by zinc production and processing, the natural gas used at the kiln and the disposal of hard coal ash) and ecotoxicity (mainly caused by electricity production, the disposal of slags and hard coal ash as well as zinc and copper production and processing).

The contributions covered under the construction/installation stage are mostly associated with the product delivery to the market and the disposal of packaging materials, mainly corrugated cardboard. The recovery stage includes recycling processes and benefits by preventing the need to produce primary materials. Recycling is a relevant factor for some of the impact categories, offsetting a portion of the impacts caused by production. Additionally, the delivery of the product to the construction/installation site as well as the processes for dismantling the product and final waste treatment during the end of life stage are slightly relevant in the majority of the impact categories.

Production stage

The ceramic parts dominate the material contribution except for eutrophication and non-carcinogenics. Corrugated board has major contributions to the eutrophication and non-carcinogenics impact categories. The die casting of zinc has a significant contribution to the non-carcinogenic impact category. The injection molding process has a significant contribution to the carcinogenics impact category while the steel parts have a significant contribution to fossil fuel depletion. The remaining parts and processes contribute between 7% and 18% of the overall impacts in the rest of the categories.

Sensitivity analysis

The deviations at the production stage are a combination of the variation in amount of the ceramic component of the two products (10-20% deviation) caused by the differences in the firing yield and production efficiency. Use phase deviations (over 20%) are a result of differences in the product’s water consumption and associated operational energy use. The Ultramax II 1G uses 22% less water than the other two Ultramax versions: The Eco Ultramax and Ultramax II. The deviations at the construction/installation and end of life stages are mainly due to the weight difference of the finished product after packaging, which is driven by the difference in the ceramic component weight in the two products.

Multi-product weighted average

Results represent the weighted average using production volumes for the products covered. Variations of specific products for differences of 10-20% against the average are indicated in purple; differences greater than 20% are indicated in red. A difference greater than 10% is considered significant.

TOTO programs improving environmental performance

  • Dual-Max®, E-Max®, Tornado Flush, 1G®, and EcoPower® technologies reduce water consumption in the use phase
  • Energy efficiency programs optimize the firing process
  • 50% electricity from renewable energy
  • 100% of post-industrial ceramic waste is recycled
See how we make it greener

LCA results

Life cycle Stage Production Construction Use End of Life Recovery

Information modules: Included | Excluded*

*Installation and deconstruction/demolition are mostly manual. The toilets and/or urinals should not need repair, maintenance or replacement during the modeled life time.

Operational energy use is irrelevant to the life cycle of the modeled product.

Reuse and energy recovery are not modeled for toilets and/or urinals.

A1 Raw Materials A4 Transportation/ Delivery B1 Use C1 Deconstruction/ Demolition D Reuse, recovery and/or recycling
A2 Transportation A5 Construction/ Installation B2 Maintenance C2 Transportation  
A3 Manufacturing   B3 Repair C3 Waste processing  
    B4 Replacement C4 Disposal  
    B5 Refurbishment    
    B6 Operational energy use    
    B7 Operational water use    
Impacts per 20 years of service 8.15 mPts 0.65 mPts 30.64 mPts 1.44 mPts -0.49 mPts
Materials or processes contributing >20% to total impacts in each life cycle stage Ceramic parts production as well as raw materials transport. Transportation of the product to installation site or consumer and disposal of packaging. Volume of water use during the operation of the product and the embedded energy use (such as electricity) in the water used. Transport to waste processing, waste processing and disposal of material flows transported to a landfill. Plastic and metal components' recycling processes.

TRACI v2.1 results per one toilet

  • A variation of 10 to 20%
  • |
  • A variation greater than 20%
Life cycle Stage Production Construction Use End of Life Recovery

Ecological damage

Impact Category Unit
Acidification kg SO2 eq Kilograms of Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Acidification processes increase the acidity of water and soil systems and causes damage to lakes, streams, rivers and various plants and animals as well as building materials, paints and other human-built structures.
4.01E-01 5.31E-02 2.28E+00 5.87E-03 -2.56E-02
Eutrophication kg N eqKilograms of Nitrogen equivalent
Eutrophication is the enrichment of an aquatic ecosystem with nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) that accelerate biological productivity (growth of algae and weeds) and an undesirable accumulation of algal biomass which impacts industry, agriculture, drinking, fishing and recreation and causes death of fish and shellfish, toxicity to humans, marine mammals and livestock, and reduces biodiversity.
6.32E-02 6.35E-03 2.57E-01 5.46E-04 -7.07E-03
Global warming kg CO2 eqKilograms of Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Global warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to change in global climate patterns and is caused by the increase of the sources of greenhouse gases and decrease of the sinks due to deforestation and land use. GW leads to problems in human health, agriculture, forest, water source and damage to species and biodiversity as well as coastal areas.
1.16E+02 8.50E+00 4.38E+02 1.12E+00 -3.03E+00
Ozone depletion kg CFC-11 eq Kilograms of Trichlorofluoromethane equivalent
Ozone depletion is the reduction of ozone in the stratosphere caused by the release of ozone depleting chemicals. Ozone depletion can increases ultraviolet B radiation to the earth which can adversely affect human health (skin cancer and cataracts and immune-system suppression) and other system (marine life, agricultural crops, and other vegetation) and causes damage to human-built materials.
5.91E-06 1.89E-08 3.32E-05 1.23E-07 -2.73E-07


SM Transparency Report Framework

Part A: LCA Calculation Rules and Background Report Requirements | Version 2018 (compliant with ISO14040-44 and ISO14025)

Part B: Product Group Definition – Residential Toilets

Transparency Reports™ / environmental product declarations enable purchasers and users to compare the potential environmental performance of products on a life cycle basis. They are designed to present information transparently to make the limitations of comparability more understandable. TRs/EPDs of products that conform to the same PCR and include the same life cycle stages, but are made by different manufacturers, may not sufficiently align to support direct comparisons. They therefore, cannot be used as comparative assertions unless the conditions defined in ISO 14025 Section 6.7.2. ‘Requirements for Comparability’ are satisfied.

Rating systems

The intent is to reward project teams for selecting products from manufacturers who have verified improved life-cycle environmental performance.

LEED BD+C: New Construction | v4 - LEED v4

MR Building product disclosure and optimization
Environmental product declarations

Environmental product declarations

  • Industry-wide (generic) EPD1/2 product

  • Product-specific Type III EPD1 product

Green Globes for New Construction and Sustainable Interiors

Materials and resources

  • NC Path B: Prescriptive Path for Building Core and Shell

  • C and SI 4.1.2 Path B: Prescriptive Path for Interior Fit-outs

Collaborative for High Performance Schools National Criteria

MW 7.1 – Environmental Product Declarations

  • Third-party certified type III EPD 2 points